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V. Spirulina & Diabetes



“Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases and is of great concern globally owing to its health and socioeconomic repercussions. Diet plays a central key role in maintaining the blood glucose levels in diabetic patients to prevent complications arising. As spirulina has been associated with cholesterol regulatory, antioxidant and immune modulatory properties, it seems to be helpful to diabetic patients as a functional food. Spirulina helps in maintaining the nutritional balance in such chronic conditions. Considering the critical lipid profile in DM patients, spirulina has been reported to have blood lipid lowering effects which have a positive impact on both healthy subjects as well as heart patients. Since dyslipidemia, oxidative and inflammatory stress are considered to be the contributing factors for diabetes, spirulina has great promise as a functional food for management of type 2 diabetes. [Studies] with diabetic rat models concluded that Spirulina maxima was effective in correcting the abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms caused by excess fructose within the body.” Ravi et al. 2010 The beneficial effects of spirulina focusing on its immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. Nutrition and Dietary Supplements 2010:2 73–83






1. Antidiabetic Property of Spirulina  

Layam   Anitha, Reddy  Chandra Lekha Kasi (2007) Diabetologia Croatica 35-2, 2006


To evaluate the antidiabetic property of spirulina, experimentation was studied in an animal model before proceeding to clinical trials. The levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin and serum C-peptide, and activities of the glucose metabolizing enzymes hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase were estimated and studied in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The findings were compared between normal, diabetic and spirulina supplemented diabetic rats. The findings indicated that the administration of spirulina tended to bring the parameters significantly towards the normal. The effect of spirulina at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight yielded a higher level of significance than the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight, therefore the former was used in further biochemical and clinical studies. The activity of hexokinase in the liver decreased markedly, while the activity of glucose-6- phosphatase increased significantly in diabetic control rats. Treatment with spirulina in diabetic rats increased the hexokinase activity and decreased the glucose-6-phosphatase activity.

In extenso:    <http://indija.idb.hr/diabetologia/06no2-1.pdf>



2.Ameliorative potential of aqueous cell extract of Spirulina platensis on diabetes associated metabolic alterations  

Jalaja  Kumar D. and Praveen  Kumar  B. : The Bioscan : 5(3) : 487-489, 2010


Oral administration of aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis cells to diabetic rats protected the rats from the alterations induced in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The increase in the glycosalated hemoglobin is an indicator of progression in diabetes. In addition during diabetes there is an increases in the cholesterol and triglyceride contents. The cupplementation of Spirulina extract (90mg/kg bw) brouth the levels of lipids to almost normal by exhibiting antihypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties. The decrease in HDL cholesterol in diabetic rats can be used as a marker in the assessing the severity of diabets.

In Extenso :    <http://www.thebioscan.in/Journals_PDF/5334-%20D.%20%20JALAJA%20KUMARI.pdf>



3. Role of Spirulina in the Control of Glycemia and Lipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

J Med Food. 2001 Winter;4(4):193-199.

Parikh P, Mani U, Iyer U. Department of Foods and Nutrition, M S University of Baroda, Vadodara-

390002, Gujarat, India.


Spirulina, with its high concentration of functional nutrients, is emerging as an important therapeutic food. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic role of Spirulina. Twenty-five subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to receive Spirulina (study group) or to form the control group. At baseline, the control and study groups were matched for various variables. The efficacy of Spirulina supplementation (2 g/day for 2 months) was determined using the preintervention and postintervention blood glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels, and lipid profiles of the diabetic subjects. Two-month supplementation with Spirulina resulted in an appreciable lowering of fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose levels. A significant reduction in the HbA(1c) level was also observed, indicating improved long-term glucose regulation. With regard to lipids, triglyceride levels were significantly lowered. Total cholesterol (TC) and its fraction, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), exhibited a fall coupled with a marginal increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). As a result, a significant reduction in the atherogenic indices, TC:HDL-C and LDL-C: HDL-C, was observed. The level of apolipoprotein B registered a significant fall together with a significant increment in the level of apolipoprotein A1. Therefore, a significant and favorable increase in the ratio of A1:B was also noted. These findings suggest the beneficial effect of Spirulina supplementation in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving the lipid profile of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Abstract:      

ncbi :   <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12639401> ,

liebertonline : <http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/10966200152744463>

UKPCM :    <http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/12639401>



4. Spirulina maxima prevents fatty liver formation in CD-1 male and female mice with experimental diabetes.

Rodríguez-Hernández A, Blé-Castillo JL, Juárez-Oropeza MA, Díaz-Zagoya JC.

Laboratorio de Análisis Clínicos, Hospital General de Zona No. 1, Instituto Mexicano de Seguro Social, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, DF.

The dietary administration of 5% Spirulina maxima (SM) during four weeks to diabetic mice, starting one week after a single dose of alloxan, 250 mg/Kg body weight, prevented fatty liver production in male and female animals. The main action of SM was on triacylglycerol levels in serum and liver. There was also a moderate hypoglycemia in male mice. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances also decreased in serum and liver after SM administration. There was also a decrease in the percentage of HDL in diabetic mice that was reverted by the SM administration. The sum of LDL + VLDL percentages was also partially normalized in diabetic animals by the SM administration. An additional observation was the lower incidence of adherences between the liver and the intestine loops in the diabetic mice treated with SM compared with diabetic mice without SM. Male and female mice showed differences to diabetes susceptibility and response to SM, the female being more resistant to diabetes induction by alloxan and more responsive to the beneficial effects of SM. It is worth future work of SM on humans looking for better quality of life and longer survival of diabetic patients.

Abstract : <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11508645>



5.Effect of food diet supplements with chromium on the clinical and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients

Vopr Pitan. 2004;73(5):17-20.

[Article in Russian] Sharafetdinov KhKh, Meshcheriakova VA, Plotnikova OA, Mazo VK, Gmoshinskii IV, Nechaeva SV.


It was investigated the influence of food diet supplements with chromium on dynamic of glycaemia, lipid profile, blood pressure and weight in type 2 diabetic patients. Traditional hypocaloric diet was supplemented with chromium-spirulina (50 mcg chromium per day). The results investigations indicated that a chromium- enriched diet has beneficial effects on basal and postprandial glycaemia, the content of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum in compared with a traditional hypocaloric diet.

Abstract: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Sharafetdinov%20KhKh%2C%20Meshcheriakova%20VA%2C%20Plotnikova%20OA%2C%20Mazo%20VK%2C%20Gmoshinskiĭ%20IV%2C%20Nechaeva%20SV.%20>



6.Effect of a zinc-enriched diet on the clinical and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients

Vopr Pitan. 2004;73(4):17-20.

[Article in Russian] Sharafetdinov KhKh, Meshcheriakov VA, Plotnikova OA, Mazo VK,

Gmoshinskii IV, Aleshko-Ozhevskii IuP, Sheviakova LV, Makhova NN.

It was investigated the influence of a diet with zinc supplementation on dynamic of glycaemia, lipid profile, blood pressure and weight in type 2 diabetic patients. Traditional hypocaloric diet was supplemented with zinc-spirulina (7.5 mg zinc per day). The results investigations indicated that a zinc-enriched diet has beneficial effects on basal and postprandial glycaemia, the content of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum in compared with a traditional hypocaloric diet.

Abstract: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=15460984%20>



7.Protective effects of polysacchride of Spirulina platensis and Sargassum thunbeergii on vascular of alloxan induced diabetic rats

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Feb;30(3):211-5.

[Article in Chinese] Huang ZX, Mei XT, Xu DH, Xu SB, Lv JY.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, SunYat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.


OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effects of polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis and Sargassum thunbeergii on vascular of alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats. METHOD: With the doses of polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis (PSP) and Sargassum thunbeergii (PST) compound (1:1) 12.261, 36.783, 110.349 mg x kg(-1) by i.g. administration to alloxan induced diabetic rats respectively for 6 weeks. Then the blood glucose and the TC, HDL-C, TG, NO, ET in serum were detected. The contraction and relaxation response to NE and ACh in aortic rings of the alloxan induced diabetic rats has been studied. RESULT: The results showed the compound of PSP and PST could decrease the blood glucose and the TC, TG, NO, ET in serum and increase HDL-C than in the alloxan induced diabetic rats. The contraction responses to NE in aortic rings of the alloxan induced diabetic rats were significantly elevated in the normal rats, and the responses to ACh were significantly lower. PSP and PST compound could significantly lower the responses to NE and significantly elevate the responses to ACh in aortic rings of the alloxan induced diabetic rats. CONCLUSION: PSP and PST compound could decrease blood glucose and could protect the vascular of alloxan induced diabetic rats.


Abstract:      <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15719643>




8. A randomized study to establish the effects of spirulina in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Eun Hee Lee, Ji-Eun Park, Young-Ju Choi, Kap-Bum Huh2 and Wha-Young Kim : (2008)   Nutrition Research and Practice (2008), 2(4), 295-300

Abstract

Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of spirulina intervention in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The subjects were 37 type 2 diabetic patients who visited a diabetic clinic in Seoul and randomly assigned into spirulina (8 g/day) or control group. During the intervention period of 12 weeks, subjects were asked to keep usual diet and prohibited to take any functional foods or dietary supplements. Spirulina supplementation for 12 weeks did not affect anthropometric parameters, however, lowered plasma triglycerides level significantly (p<0.05). Spirulina supplementation also resulted in a significant reduction in plasma malondialdehyde level (p<0.05) and an increase in plasma adiponectin level (p<0.1). The lipid lowering effect of spirulina supplementation was different according to serum lipid levels of the subjects before entering the intervention. The subjects with higher initial triglyceride level showed higher reduction in plasma triglyceride and blood pressure. The subjects with higher initial total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol level showed higher reduction in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, IL-6, and blood pressure. It seems that spirulina supplementation is more effective in subjects with dyslipidemia. This study provides the evidence for beneficial effects of spirulina supplementation on blood lipid profiles, inflammatory variables, and antioxidant capacity in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The results suggest that spirulina is a promising agent as a functional food for diabetes management.

Key Words: Spirulina supplementation, type 2 diabetes, lipid profile, antioxidant capacity, inflammatory response


In Extenso:   <http://synapse.koreamed.org/Synapse/Data/PDFData/0161NRP/nrp-2-295.pdf>



9.Studies on the long-term effect of spirulina supplementation on serum lipid profile and glycated proteins in NIDDM patients

Mani  U., Desai  S. & Iyer  U. (2000):  Journal of nutraceuticals, functional & medical foods, 2000, vol 2, n°3, pp25-32.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder, affecting the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Hyperglycemia is also associated with non-enzymatic glycation of serum proteins thereby enhancing the development of secondary complications affecting multiple organ failure. Ninety percent of the diabetics are non-insulin dependent and this syndrome can be effectively controlled with prudent diet therapy. This has spawned a new era of research leading to the use of few natural unprocessed foods like blue-green algae Spirulina which has a galaxy of nutrients like linolenic acid, gamma linolenic acid, antioxidants, balanced fatty acid profile, amino acids and super oxide dismutase. With these components in mind, the present study was planned to observe the long-term effect of spirulina tablet supplementation (2 g/ day) on blood sugar levels, serum lipid profile and glycated serum protein levels of 15 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. Blood analysis was done at baseline, 1 month, and 2 months interval and during the study period the patients were advised not to change their life style, dietary pattern and drugs. Supplementation for a period of 2 months resulted in a significant reduction of blood sugar levels and glycated serum protein levels, thus confirming the hypoglycemic effect of spirulina. Regarding the lipid profile, a significant reduction was observed in triglycerides, total cholesterol and free fatty acid levels. Among the lipoprotein fractions, appreciable reduction was noticed in LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C/ LDL-C ratio. Thus it can be concluded that spray dried spirulina tablets which are rich in gamma linolenic acid, antioxidants, amino acid pattern, fatty acid profile and super oxide dismutase helps in reducing hyperglycemia and shifts the metabolism of lipids towards a favorable side thereby helping in the control of diabetes.

Keywords: Plant origin; Spirulina; Phytotherapy; Non insulin dependent diabetes; Treatment; Oral administration; Human; Long term; Glycemia; Lipemia; Cholesterolemia; Antilipemic agent; Hypoglycemic agent; Cyanobacteria; Bacteria; Endocrinopathy


Abstract:      cat.inist. : <http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=978575>



10.Arthrospira maxima prevents the acute fatty liver induced by the administration of simvastatin, ethanol and a hypercholesterolemic diet to mice.

Blé-Castillo  JL, Rodríguez-Hernández  A, Miranda-Zamora  R, Juárez-Oropeza  MA, Díaz-Zagoya  JC.

Life Sci. 2002 Apr 19;70(22):2665-73.


An evident fatty liver, corroborated morphologically and chemically, was produced in CD-1 mice after five daily doses of simvastatin 75 mg/Kg body weight, a hypercholesterolemic diet and 20 percent ethanol in the drinking water. After treating the animals, they presented serum triacylglycerols levels five times higher than the control mice, total lipids, cholesterol and triacylglycerols in the liver were 2, 2 and 1.5 times higher, respectively, than in control animals. When Arthrospira maxima was given with diet two weeks prior the onset of fatty liver induction, there was a decrement of liver total lipids (40%), liver triacylglycerols (50%) and serum triacylglycerols (50%) compared to the animals with the same treatment but without Arthrospira maxima. In addition to the mentioned protective effect, the administration of this algae, produced a significant increase (45%) in serum high density lipoproteins. The mechanism for this protective effect was not established in these experiments.

Abstract:      <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12269393>



11.Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

Moura  Leandro P., Puga  Guilherme M.,  Beck  Wladimir R., Teixeira Inaian P.,  Ghezzi  Ana Carolina, Silva  Glaucio A.,   Mello  MariaAlice R. (2011):   -  Lipids in Health and Disease 2011, 10:77


Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Aim of the study: The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats.

Methods: Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised.

Results: The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC.

Conclusion: Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats.

In Extenso:    <http://www.lipidworld.com/content/pdf/1476-511X-10-77.pdf>



12.Study on Hypoglycaemic Effect of Spirulina platensis on Long -Evans Rats

Mridha M.O.F., Jahan M.A.A., Akhtar N., Munshi J.L. and  Nessa Z. (2010) : -  Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res. 45(2), 163-168, 2010


Spirulina containing high concentration of functional nutrients is emerging as an important therapeutic food. So the present study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties of Spirulina platensis on long-evans rats. Two sets of experiment were conducted, the 1st set was compared with the effect of Spirulina platensis, glibenclamide, glucose and water after feeding 60 minutes. Glibenclamide was used as a standard reference drug. The findings clearly indicated that the oral administration of Spirulina platensis (150mg/kg b.w) signifi- cantly tended to reduce blood glucose level of rat than that of glibenclamide. In the 2nd experiment long-term hypoglycaemic effect of Spirulina platensis 0.5% and 2.5% fed with high fat high sugar containing diet and 150mg/kg b.w with normal laboratory diet was also observed. The 2nd findings also indicated that the blood glucose level was significantly decreased in both the diet when supplemented with Spirulina platensis.

Key words : Diabetic mellitus, High fat diet, Hypoglycaemic, Spirulina platensis, Body weight


In Extenso:    <http://banglajol.info/index.php/BJSIR/article/viewFile/5715/4476>



13.Attenuation  of  diabetic complications  by C-phycoerythrin in rats: antioxidant activity of C-phycoerythrin including copper-induced lipoprotein and serum oxidation  

Soni Badrish, Visavadiya Nishant P.  and  Madamwar  Datta (2009)

British Journal of Nutrition (2009), 102, 102–109


In the present study, the protective role of purified C-phycoerythrin (C-PE) against diabetic complications and Cu-mediated lipoprotein oxidation was evaluated. C-PE (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight per d) was administered to experimental streptozotocin–nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic male rats for 28 d. C-PE treatment successfully ameliorated diabetic complications by decreasing food intake, organ weights, serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, TAG, VLDL-cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), with increases in body weight, Hb, total protein, bilirubin and ferric-reducing ability of plasma values. Hepatic and renal tissues demonstrated significant decreases in TBARS, lipid hydroperoxide and conjugated diene contents, with increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, vitamin E and vitamin C levels. Furthermore, the 4-week ex vivo and in vitro administration of C-PE (0·5 and 1·0 mg/ml) indicated a decrease in Cu-mediated serum oxidation. The kinetics of the LDL oxidation profile showed significant prolongation of the lag phase with declines in oxidation rate, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxide and TBARS. Results indicated the involvement of C-PE in the amelioration of diabetic complications by significant reductions in oxidative stress and oxidised LDL-triggered atherogenesis.


In Extenso: <http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=5885392&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0007114508162973>

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